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Interactions of gut microbiota with functional food components and nutraceuticals J. Laparra, Y. Dietary component also play benecial roles beyond basic nutrition, leading to the development of the functional food concept and nutraceuticals.
Prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs and phytochemicals are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds. The benecial effects of prebiotics mainly relay on their inuence on the gut microbiota composition and their ability to generate fermentation products short-chain fatty acids with diverse biological roles.
PUFAs include the -3 and -6 fatty acids, whose balance may inuence diverse aspects of immunity Chata v sulove metabolism. Moreover, interactions between Chata v sulove and components of the gut microbiota may also inuence their biological roles.
Phytochemicals are bioactive non-nutrient plant compounds, which have raised interest because of their potential effects as antioxidants, antiestrogenics, anti-inammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenics.
However, the bioavailability and effects of polyphenols greatly depend on their transformation by components of the gut microbiota. Phytochemicals and their metabolic products may also inhibit pathogenic bacteria while stimulate the growth of benecial bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects.
Therefore, the intestinal microbiota is both a target for nutritional intervention and a factor inuencing the biological activity of other food compounds acquired orally.
This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and functional food components, and the consequences of these interactions on human health. All rights reserved. Gut microbial ecology.
Roles of the gut microbiota in host physiology and health. Prebiotics and gut microbiota. Polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs and gut microbiota. Phytochemicals and gut microbiota. Conclusions and future perspectives. Introduction The intestinal tract harbours a complex bacterial community microbiotaintegrated by more than different bacterial Corresponding author.
E-mail address: yolsanz iata. The metabolic activity developed by the gut microbiota contributes to the digestion of dietary compounds, salvage of energy, supply of micro nutrients and transformation of xenobiotics.
Overall, a balanced gut microbiota composition confers benets to the host, while microbial imbalances are associated with metabolic and immune-mediated disorders [1,2].
The composition of the gut microbiota is inuenced by endogenous and environmental factors diet, antibiotic intake, xenobiotics, J. By contrast, in infants the genus Bidobacterium is predominant and also a few genera from the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as Escherichia, Raoultella, and Klebsiella .
The composition of this bacterial ecosystem is dynamic and susceptible to changes driven by dietary factors and diverse disease conditions [11,12]. Roles of the gut microbiota in host physiology and health The gut microbiota develops a number of protective, immune and metabolic functions, which altogether have an enormous impact on the nutritional and health status of the host.
The indigenous gut microbiota and transient bacteria food-associated and probiotics are known to inuence the development and regulation of the hosts defences, of immune and non-immune nature, via interaction with the epithelium and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue .
The intestinal epithelium constitutes a physical barrier that regulates the transcellular and paracellular transit of exogenous substances and impairs the entry of most of luminal antigens; this barrier is strengthened by the mucus layer integrated by glycoproteins mucins and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and other secretions bile, acids, enzymes, etc.
The commensal microbiota constitutes part of this primary line of defence, and participates in regulation of paracellular permeability, mucin gene expression by goblet cells and secretion of antimicrobial peptides defensins and angiogenins by intestinal Paneth cells.
Moreover, the intestinal microbiota is essential to the postnatal development of the immune system, inuencing the content of lamina propria T cells, immunoglobulin A producing B cells, intraepithelial T cells and serum immunoglobulin levels .
Based on these protective and immunomodulatory roles, some probiotic strains are acknowledged for their benecial effects on the treatment of acute diarrhoea, prevention of antibiotic associated-diarrhoea, eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection together with antibiotics and in prevention of atopic eczema in humans [13,15].
The intestinal microbiota also affects the host metabolism, providing additional enzymes and regulating the expression of genes involved in the utilization of carbohydrates and lipids, and in drugs bioconversion .
The number of genes of the collective genome microbiome of the microbiota exceeds by far those of the human genome, encoding additional metabolic features [17,19]. Genomic and physiologic studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota provides enzymes specialized in the utilization of non-digestible carbohydrates and host-derived glycoconjugates e.
The microbiome is particularly enriched in genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, indicating that complex polysaccharides are the primary energy source for the colonic microbiota .
Some of the most abundant bacterial enzymes involved in the degradation of complex polysaccharides and xenobiotics are -glycosidases and -glucuronidases, which may play both benecial and harmful roles . Glycosidase activities present in the human colonic microbiota act on plant glucosides contributing to nutrient utilization and, in some cases, to the generation of biologically active aglycones with other health benets e.
Interactions between functional food components and the gut microbiota.I tak ubíhá cesta rychle, je jen trochu teplo. Cestou se stavíme v Jeskyni blanických rytířů u Kunštátu.
Je to uměle vytesaná jeskyně ve vápenci z dob vlasteneckého vzepětí po získání nezávislosti na Rakousku. Jsou v ní vytesány do stěn sochy spících blanických rytířů.
Do Sůkenické dorážíme před pátou hodinou. Ubytovanie v Sulove je uz takmer naplnene. Kedze Ubytovacie centrum Putnik - kemp + penzion, zial dopadlo, ako dopadlo, tak volnych miest vela nie je.
Aj dalsia velka chata v Ciernom potoku je zatvorena. No comment. Na moznosti ubytovania v kempe, ktory je teraz v sprave obecneho uradu, je potrebne sa pytat dievcat na urade: / Chata Súľov je situovaná v peknom prostredí obce Súľov - Hradná v chatovej oblasti Čierny potok okrese Bytča v Súľovských vrchoch.
K dispozícii je spoločenská miestnosť s krbom a posedením, kompletne zariadená kuchyňa, dve spálne a podkrovie Pri objekte je možnosť posedenia a grilovania. Ubytovanie je vhodné pre rodiny s.
V ñ letech stoletì sestrojili Watt v û k William Murdock a d lnì inûen r Richard Trevithick prvnì spïönè parnì vozy. V letech ñ Trevithick zkonstruoval pro tov rnì koúskou kolejovou dr hu v Merthyr Tydfilu v jiûnìm Walesu prvnì parnì lokomotivu na svïtï.
Marcil V, Delvin E, Garofalo C, Levy E. Butyrate impairs lipid transport by inhibiting microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in Caco-2 cells. J Nutr ;  Borthakur A, Saksena S, Gill RK, Alrefai WA, Ramaswamy K, Dudeja PK.
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