In the decades after the two world wars, the techniques were more widely applied to problems in business, industry and society. Since that time, operational research has expanded into a field widely used in industries ranging from petrochemicals to airlines, finance, logistics, and government, moving to a focus on the development of mathematical models that can be used to analyse and optimize complex systems, and has become an area of active academic and industrial research.
The Phases of Matter Introduction Matter can exist in several distinct forms which we call phases. We are all familiar with solids, liquids and gases.
Whether a substance is a solid, liquid or gas depends on the potential energy in the atomic forces holding the particles together and the thermal energy of the particle motions.
The pressure on the subtance also has an effect on the phase. Solids Crystaline Solids Crystaline solids are characterised by a long-range order. The atoms are closely packed on lattice points held in in place by atomic bonds.
The internal energy of the atoms is not sufficient to allow the atoms to break away from their lattice positions. Examples of crystaline solids include semiconductors, quartz, salt, etc.
Amorphous Solids Amorphous Solids are still closely packed together but lack the translational symmetry of crystaline solids. However, even amorphous solids have relatively good spatial ordering, especially over small distances, molecules Liquids As the material is heated, the internal energy is increased and the atoms are no longer tied to their lattice positions but can move relative to each other although the atoms are still Phases of operation research packed together.
Gases A gas is matter in which the molecules are widely separated, move around freely, and move at high speeds. Examples of solids include the gases we breathe nitrogen, oxygen, and othersthe helium in balloons, and steam water vapor.
The solid, liquid and gas phases of matter. Plasmas Eventually, given enough heat, the electrons and nucleus become separated and into positively, charged ions and negatively charged electrons.
This soup of ions and electrons is known as a plasma Degenerate Materials Bose-Einstein condensate is a state of matter that occurs at extremely low temperatures, near absolute zero. These temperatures are too low to occur anywhere on Earth except in laboratory experiments.
The very slow motion of molecules at these temperatures allow some of the more bizarre aspects of quantum mechanics to manifest themselves in the form of novel macroscopic properties. For example, when the temperature of Helium-4 goes below 4. In this state the viscosity disappears and it can flow with out friction.
A superfluid in a beaker will form a film that crawls up the walls, over the top, and down the sides until the beaker is emptied. Another interesting effect is quantised vorticity.
In a rotating container of He-4, a vortex can form in the middle, with fluid moving around in a circle, much like a water vortex around a plughole in a bath. The difference is that only certain fluid velocities are allowed. At a given distance from the vortex center, there is a minimum velocity, then twice that minimum, then three times the minimum, etc.
No velocitys between these values are permitted, so the vortices are said to be quantized. High Pressures Change in states are caused by changing the internal energy of the material, however under extremely high pressure, ordinary matter undergoes a transition to a series of exotic states of matter collectively known as degenerate matter.
These are of great interest to astrophysics, because these high-pressure conditions are believed to exist inside stars that have used up their nuclear fusion "fuel", such as white dwarves and neutron stars.
Phase Diagrams The phases of the material can be recorded for many different pressures and temperatures. Plotting the phases, whether the material is solid, liquid or gas for many different pressures and temperatures we can build up a phase diagram for the substance.
As shown in Figure 2. Phase Diagram for water The phase diagram shows that at the interfaces between solid and liquid, liquid and gas and solid and gas it is possible for more than one phase to exist in equilibrium.
The point at which all three phases come to gether is the triple point and represents the temperature and pressure for which all three states of matter can exist.
For water this is, The other labeled point on the diagram is called the critical point, also called critical state. At this point the liquid and gaseous phases of a pure stable substance become identical.The development operation of the above mentioned phases was awarded to a consortium comprising of Eni of Italy (60%), Petronas of Malaysia (20%) and NIOC (20%) in July The refinery came onto stream officially on April 17, in presence of the then esteemed president of rutadeltambor.com Iran.
Operation Research Hira Gupta Pert rutadeltambor.com Free Download Here BE Computer 1 rutadeltambor.com Phases of Operation Research. Phases of Operation Research.
OR study commonly includes the following main phases. 1. Defining the problem and collecting data. 2. Creating a mathematical model.
3. Obtaining solutions from the model. 4. Checking the model and its solutions. 5. Preparing to execute the model. 6. Final Execution or Implementation /5(K). Operations research (OR) is a discipline explicitly devoted to aiding decision makers.
This section reviews the terminology of OR, a process for addressing practical decision problems and the relation between Excel models and OR. Qc manager and alternate qc manager to implement and manage the three phases of control and their authority to stop work which is not in compliance with the contract.
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Operation research is the application of scientific method to problems of control and optimization, involving the control of organized (man-machine) systems, in order to provide solutions which best serve the purposes of the organisation as a whole.
It relies heavily on computing in its deployment.