A relatively minor point, though not trivial, has been the issue of the biological relatedness of the Jewish people, and their relatedness to the nations among whom they were resident. This particular point became more starkly relevant with a scientific understanding of human genealogy and genetic relationship in the 18th and especially 19th centuries, but its root can be traced back to antiquity. Jews are not simply a set of individuals who espouse a belief in the God of the Jews, or hold to the laws of the God of the Jews. Rather, one aspect of Jewish identity is its collective component whereby the adherents of the Jewish religion also conceive of themselves as a particular nation or tribe, and therefore bound together by a chain of biological descent.
Key findings Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, — Among men, obesity prevalence is generally similar at all income levels, however, among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men those with higher income are more likely to be obese than those with low income.
Higher income women are less likely to be obese than low income women, but most obese women are not low income. There is no significant trend between obesity and education among men. Among women, however, there is a trend, those with college degrees are less likely to be obese compared with less educated women.
Between — and — the prevalence of obesity increased in adults at all income and education levels. In — more than one-third of United States adults were obese 1. Obese individuals are at increased risk of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and certain cancers, among other conditions 2.
Some studies have shown a relationship between obesity prevalence and socioeconomic status measured as educational level or income 34. This data brief presents the most recent national data on obesity in United States adults and its association with poverty income ratio PIR and education level.
Results are presented by sex and race and ethnicity. The relationship between obesity and income in men varies by race and ethnicity.
Similarly, among Mexican-American men, There is no significant difference in obesity prevalence by poverty level among non-Hispanic white men.
Among women, obesity prevalence increases as income decreases. Trends are similar for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American women, but they are only significant for non-Hispanic white women. Among men, there is no significant trend between education level and obesity prevalence.
Among women, obesity prevalence increases as education decreases. There is a threshold effect in both men and women, where the prevalence of obesity is significantly lower among those with college degrees compared with those with some college.
There are no significant differences in obesity prevalence by education level among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men. Among non-Hispanic white men there is a threshold effect, the prevalence is lower among college graduates compared with those with some college.
Among women, non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American women with college degrees are significantly less likely to be obese compared with those with less than a high school education.
In fact, among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American women, the prevalence of obesity among those with a college degree is significantly lower than among women with some college Figure 3. Between — and — the prevalence of obesity among adults increased at all income levels.
Similar increases occurred among women. In — the obesity prevalence was Between — and — the prevalence of obesity among adults at all levels of education increased.
Among men with a college degree, the prevalence of obesity increased from The association of FTO variants and obesity has been observed in different populations,, and among the identified variants, the rs is the one most strongly associated with common obesity. Obesity is determined by the interaction between predisposing genetic and environmental aspects, but at present the gene–gene and gene–environment interactions contributing to the development of this complex disease cannot be analysed in detail.
The association between the rs variant and obesity is modulated by the PEA, so that the relationship between the G allele and a higher incidence of obesity was present in those individuals within the lower PEA group. Obesity is not just a problem of “girth control”; it is now considered a chronic disease by the American Medical Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American College of Endocrinology, The Endocrine Society, the Obesity Society, the American Society of Bariatric Physicians, and the National Institutes of.
Other organizations classifying obesity as a disease include the American Medical Association (), American Association for Clinical Endocrinology (), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (), the Social Security Administration () and the National Institutes of Health ().
First recognized as a disease by the American Medical Association in , obesity is expected to soon overtake tobacco as the leading preventable cause of cancer, according to the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO).